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Fair Isle Bird Observatory & Guesthouse

Checklist of the Flora of Fair Isle

Camila V. Quinteros Peñafiel, Nick J. Riddiford & Alex D. Twyford

This summary of Quinteros Peñafiel et al. (2017) provides the first comprehensive floristic study of the island. A botanical survey was performed for each monad, and habitat information was collated following the NCC Phase 1 habitat survey method. These data were compiled to give a comprehensive checklist of 318 species, classified into 31 orders, 68 families and 191 genera according to APG IV. Of the total number of species, 255 are native to Great Britain and the remaining 63 are aliens. The list includes 10 species under threat, seven nationally scarce and one nationally rare species. The results reveal that even though Fair Isle is about 200 times smaller than the full archipelago of Shetland, it holds over one-third the number of species.

For further information, and detailed assessment and analysis, please refer to the paper published in the New Journal of Botany (Quinteros Peñafiel et al. 2017).

See below, for an expanation of the abbreviations used in this table.


The List

Family/SpeciesNative StatusFair Isle StatusRed Data List
ASPLENIACEAE
AspleniummarinumL.NN!
BLECHNACEAE
Blechnumspicant(L.) Roth.NN!
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE
Pteridiumaquilinum(L.) KuhnNN!
DRYOPTERIDACEAE
Dryopterisdilatata(Hoffm.) A.GrayNN!
EQUISETACEAE
EquisetumarvenseL.NN!
EquisetumpalustreL.NN!
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE
HymenophyllumwilsoniiHook.NN!NT
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE
Botrychiumlunaria(L.) Sw.NN!
OphioglossumazoricumC. PreslNN!NS
POLYPODIACEAE
PolypodiumvulgareL.NN!
WOODSIACEAE
Athyriumfilix-femina(L.) RothNN!
LYCOPODIACEAE
Huperziaselago(L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart.NN!
SELAGINELLACEAE
Selaginellaselaginoides(L.) P.Beauv. ex Mart. & SchrankNN!
CUPRESSACEAE
Juniperuscommunis subsp. nana(Hook.) SymeNN!
PINACEAE
AbiesproceraRehderNP-E
Piceasitchensis(Bong.) CarrièreNP-E
PinuscontortaDouglas ex LoudonNP-E
AMARYLLIDACEAE
Narcissussp.L.ARP-E
APONOGETONACEAE
AponogetondistachyosL.f.ANP-TE
ASPARAGACEAE
Hyacinthoidesx massartianaGeerinckANP-E
ScillavernaHuds.NN!
ASPHODELACEAE
PhormiumtenaxJ.R.Forst. & G.Forst.ANP-E
CYPERACEAE
CarexbigelowiiTorr. ex Schwein.NN!
CarexbinervisSm.NN!
CarexdioicaL.NN!
CarexechinataMurrayNN!
Carexflacca Schreb.NN!
CarexhostianaDC.NN!
CarexleporinaL.NNC-F/SL
Carexnigra(L.) ReichardNN!
CarexpaniceaL.NN!
CarexpiluliferaL.NN!
CarexpulicarisL.NN!
Carexviridula subsp. viridulaMichx.NN!
Carexviridula subsp. oedocarpa(Andersson) B.SchmidNN!
Eleocharispalustris(L.) Roem. & Schult.NN!
Eleocharisquinqueflora(Hartmann) O.SchwarzNN!
Eleogitonfluitans(L.) LinkNN!
EriophorumangustifoliumHonck.NN!
EriophorumvaginatumL.NN!
SchoenusnigricansL.NN!
Trichophorumcespitosum subsp. germanicum(Palla) HegiNN!
IRIDACEAE
Crocosmiax crocosmiiflora(Lemoine) N.E.Br.ANP-E
IrispseudacorusL.NN!
JUNCACEAE
JuncusarticulatusL.N N!
JuncusbufoniusL.NN!
JuncusbulbosusL.NN!
JuncusconglomeratusL.NN!
JuncuseffususL.NP-E
JuncusgerardiiLoisel.NN!
JuncussquarrosusL.NN!
Luzulacampestris(L.) DC.NN!
Luzulamultiflora(Ehrh.) Lej.NN!
Luzulasylvatica(Huds.) Gaudin NN!
JUNCAGINACEAE
TriglochinpalustrisL.NN!
NARTHECIACEAE
Nartheciumossifragum(L.) Huds.NN!
ORCHIDACEAE
Coeloglossumviride (L.) Hartm.NN!VU
Dactylorhizaincarnata(L.) SoóNN!
Dactylorhizax formosa(T.Stephenson & T.A.Stephenson) SoóNN!
Dactylorhizax latirella (P.M.Hall) SoóNN!
Dactylorhizamaculata subsp. ericetorum(E.F.Linton) P.F.Hunt & Summerh.NN!
Dactylorhizapurpurella(T.Stephenson & T.A.Stephenson) SoóNN!
Neottiacordata(L.) Rich.NN!
POACEAE
AgrostiscapillarisL.N N!
AgrostisstoloniferaL.NN!
AgrostisvinealisSchreb.NN!
AirapraecoxL.NN!
AlopecurusgeniculatusL.NN!
AlopecuruspratensisL.NN!
AnthoxanthumodoratumL.NN!
Arrhenatherumelatius(L.) P.Beauv. ex J.Presl & C.PreslNC-TE
AvenasativaL.ARE
AvenastrigosaSchreb.ARE
BrizamaximaL.ANC-F/SL
BromushordaceusL.NC-F/SL
CynosuruscristatusL.NC-E
DactylisglomerataL.NN!
Danthoniadecumbens(L.) DC.NN!
Deschampsiacespitosa(L.) P.Beauv. NN!
Deschampsiaflexuosa(L.) Trin.NN!
Elytrigiarepens(L.) Desv. ex NevskiNN!
FestucarubraL.NN!
Festucavivipara(L.) Sm.NN!
Glyceriafluitans(L.) R.Br.NN!
HolcuslanatusL.NN!
HordeumdistichonL.ARC-F/SL
HordeumvulgareL.ARP-F/SL
LoliummultiflorumLam.NC-F/SL
LoliumperenneL.NN!
Moliniacaerulea(L.) MoenchNN!
NardusstrictaL.NN!
PhalarisarundinaceaL.NN!
PhalariscanariensisL.ANC-F/SL
PhleumbertoloniiDC.NC-F/SL
PhleumpratenseL.NC-TE
PoaannuaL.NN!
PoahumilisEhrh. ex Hoffm.NN!
PoatrivialisL.NN!
Puccinelliadistans subsp. borealis(Holmb.) W.E.HughesNN!NS
TriticumaestivumL.ARC-F/SL
POTAMOGETONACEAE
PotamogetonpolygonifoliusPourr.NN!
TYPHACEAE
SparganiumangustifoliumMichx.NU
ZOSTERACEAE
ZosteramarinaL.NNC-F/SL
ADOXACEAE
SambucusnigraL.NP-E
AMARANTHACEAE
AtriplexglabriusculaEdmondstonNN!
AtriplexpatulaL.NC-E
AtriplexprostrataBoucher ex DC.NN!
ChenopodiumalbumL.NC-F/SL
ChenopodiummuraleL.ARC-F/SL
ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.ANP-F/SL
APIACEAE
AegopodiumpodagrariaL.ARN!
AngelicasylvestrisL.NN!
ApiuminundatumRchb.f.NN!
BupleurumsubovatumLink ex Spreng.ANC-F/SL
HeracleumsphondyliumL.NC*
LigusticumscoticumL.NN!
Peucedanumostruthium(L.) W.D.J.KochNE
ARALIACEAE
HydrocotylevulgarisL.NN!
ASTERACEAE
AchilleamillefoliumL.NN!
AchilleaptarmicaL.NN!
Anaphalismargaritacea(L.) Benth. & Hook.f.ANP-E
Antennariadioica(L.) Gaertn.NN!
ArtemisiavulgarisL.ARC*
Asterx salignusWilld.ANP-E
BellisperennisL.NN!
CentaureanigraL.NC-E
Cirsiumarvense(L.) Scop.NN!
Cirsiumvulgare (Savi) Ten.NN!
Glebioniscoronaria(L.) Cass. ex SpachARC-F/SL
Glebionissegetum(L.) Fourr.ANC-F/SL
GnaphaliumuliginosumL.NN!
HelianthusannuusL.ANC-F/SL
HypochaerisradicataL.NC-E
LeucanthemumvulgareLam.NC-E
MatricariachamomillaL.ARC-F/SL
MatricariadiscoideaDC.ANC-E
Scorzoneroidesautumnalis(L.) MoenchNN!
SenecioaquaticusHillNN!
SeneciosmithiiDC.ANP-E
SeneciovulgarisL.NN!
SonchusarvensisL.NN!
Sonchusasper(L.) HillNN!
SonchusoleraceusL.NC*
TanacetumvulgareL.ANP-E
Taraxacumagg.F.H.Wigg.NN!
TaraxacumbracteatumDahlst.NN!
TaraxacumduplidentrifonsDahlst.NN!
Taraxacumeuryphyllum(Dahlst.) M.P.Christ.NN!
TaraxacumfaeroenseDahlst. ex Henry H.Johnst.NN!
TaraxacumhamatulumHagend., Soest & Zevenb.NN!
TaraxacumlapponicumKihlm. ex Hand.-Mazz.NN!
TaraxacumpolyodonDahlst.NN!
TaraxacumpraestansH.Lindb.NN!
Tripleurospermummaritimum(L.) W.D.J.KochNN!
TussilagofarfaraL.NN!
BETULACEAE
BetulapubescensEhrh.NP-E
BORAGINACEAE
Anchusaarvensis(L.) M.Bieb.ARN!
Mertensiamaritima(L.) GrayNNC-E NT
Myosotisarvensis(L.) HillARN!
MyosotisdiscolorPers.NN*
Myosotislaxa subsp. caespitosa(Schultz) Hyl. ex Nordh. NN!
Symphytumx uplandicum NymanANP-E
BRASSICACEAE
BarbareavulgarisW.T.AitonNC*
Brassicajuncea(L.) Czern.ANC-F/SL
Brassicanigra(L.) W.D.J.Koch NC-F/SL
Brassicarapa subsp. oleifera(DC.) Metzg.ANC-F/SL
CakilemaritimaScop.NNC-F/SL
Capsellabursa-pastoris(L.) Medik. ARN!
CardamineflexuosaWith.NC-TE
CardaminepratensisL.NN!
CochleariadanicaL.NN!
Cochleariaofficinalis L.NN!
Cochleariaofficinalis subsp. scotica(Druce) P.S.Wyse Jacks.NU
Diplotaxistenuifolia(L.) DC.ARC-TE
Erucavesicaria subsp. sativa(Mill.) Thell.ARC-F/SL
ErysimumcheiranthoidesL.ARC-F/SL
RaphanusraphanistrumL.NN*
SinapisarvensisL.ARC-F/SL
Sisymbriumofficinale(L.) Scop. ARC-F/SL
ThlaspiarvenseL.ARC-F/SL
CAMPANULACEAE
JasionemontanaL.NN!
CAPRIFOLIACEAE
LonicerapericlymenumL.NP-E
SuccisapratensisMoenchNN!
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
CerastiumdiffusumPers. NN!
CerastiumfontanumBaumg.NN!
CerastiumglomeratumThuill.NNC-F/SL
Honckenyapeploides(L.) Ehrh.NN*
SaginamaritimaDonNN!
SaginaprocumbensL.NN!
Saginasubulata(Sw.) C.PreslNN!
Sileneacaulis(L.) JacqNN*
Silenedioica(L.) Clairv.NN!
Sileneflos-cuculi(L.) Greuter & BurdetNN!
SilenelatifoliaPoir.NC-F/SL
SileneunifloraRothNN!
SpergulaarvensisL.NN!VU
Spergulariamarina(L.) BesserNNC-E
Spergulariamedia(L.) C.Presl NN!
StellariaalsineGrimmNN!
Stellariamedia (L.) Vill.NN!
CRASSULACEAE
Sedumrosea(L.) Scop. NN!
DROSERACEAE
DroserarotundifoliaL.NN-RC
ERICACEAE
Callunavulgaris(L.) HullNN!
EmpetrumnigrumL.NN!
EricacinereaL.NN!
EUPHORBIACEAE
Euphorbiahelioscopia L.ARN!
EuphorbiapeplusL.ARC-F/SL
FABACEAE
AnthyllisvulnerariaL.NN!
LathyruspratensisL.NN!
LotuscorniculatusL.NN!
Melilotusindicus(L.) All.ANC-F/SL
Trifoliumhybridum subsp. hybridumANC-F/SL
TrifoliumpratenseL.NC-TE
TrifoliumrepensL.NN!
UlexeuropaeusL.NP-TE
UlexgalliiPlanch.NP-E
ViciacraccaL.NN!
ViciasepiumL.NN!
GENTIANACEAE
Gentianellacampestris(L.) BörnerNN!VU
GERANIACEAE
Geraniumdissectum L.ARC-F/SL
GeraniumpratenseL.NE
GROSSULARIACEAE
RibessanguineumPurshANP-E
HALORAGACEAE
MyriophyllumalterniflorumDC.NN!
HYPERICACEAE
Hypericumpulchrum L.NN!
LAMIACEAE
BallotanigraL.AR C-TE
GaleopsisbifidaBoenn.NN!
GaleopsistetrahitL.NN!
LamiumconfertumFr.ARN!
LamiumpurpureumL.ARN!
MenthaaquaticaL.NN!
MenthaspicataL.ARP-E
Menthax piperitaL.ANP-E
PrunellavulgarisL.NN!
Stachysx ambiguaSm.NP-E
ThymuspolytrichusA.Kern. ex BorbásNN!
LENTIBULARIACEAE
PinguiculavulgarisL.NN!
LINACEAE
LinumcatharticumL.N N!
RadiolalinoidesRothNN!NT
MONTIACEAE
MontiafontanaL.N N!
ONAGRACEAE
EpilobiumciliatumRaf.ANC-TE
EpilobiumobscurumSchreb.NC-F/SL
EpilobiumpalustreL.NN!
EpilobiumparviflorumSchreb.NC-F/SL
OROBANCHACEAE
EuphrasiaarcticaLange ex Rostr.NN!
EuphrasiaconfusaPugsleyNN!
EuphrasiafoulaensisF.Towns. ex Wettst.NN!NS
EuphrasiamarshalliiPugsleyNMEN
EuphrasiamicranthaRchb.NN!
Euphrasianemorosa (Pers.) Wallr.NN!
Euphrasiaostenfeldii(Pugsley) YeoNN!NS
EuphrasiascotticaWettst.NN!
Odontitesvernus(Bellardi) Dumort.NC*NS
PedicularispalustrisL.NN*
PedicularissylvaticaL.NN!
Rhinanthusminor L.NN!
PAPAVERACEAE
Fumariasp.L.ARC-F/SL
GlauciumflavumCrantzNU
PapaverrhoeasL.ARP-F/SL
PLANTAGINACEAE
CallitrichehamulataKütz. ex W.D.J.KochNN!
CallitrichestagnalisScop.NN!
LittorellaunifloraAsch.NN!
PlantagocoronopusL.NN!
PlantagolanceolataL.NN!
Plantagomajor L.NN!
PlantagomaritimaL.NN!
VeronicafiliformisSm.ANC-F/SL
VeronicapersicaPoir.ANC-F/SL
PLUMBAGINACEAE
Armeriamaritima(Mill.) Willd.NN!
POLYGALACEAE
PolygalaserpyllifoliaHosé NN!
POLYGONACEAE
Fallopiaconvolvulus(L.) Á.LöveARC-F/SL
Fallopiajaponica(Houtt.) Ronse Decr.ANP-E
Persicariaamphibia(L.) DelarbreNN!
Persicariabistorta(L.) Samp.NE
Persicarialapathifolia(L.) DelarbreNC-F/SL
PersicariamaculosaGrayNC-E
Persicariavivipara(L.) Ronse Decr. NN!
PolygonumarenastrumBoreauARN!
Polygonumaviculare L.NNC-F/SL
Polygonumboreale(Lange) SmallNN!NS
Rumexacetosa L.NN!
RumexacetosellaL.NN!
RumexcrispusL.NN!
RumexlongifoliusDC.NN!
RumexobtusifoliusL.NC-F/SL
PRIMULACEAE
AnagallisarvensisL.NC-F/SL
Anagallistenella(L.) L.NN!
GlauxmaritimaL.NN!
Primulavulgaris Huds.NN!
TrientaliseuropaeaL.NN!
RANUNCULACEAE
CalthapalustrisL.NN!
FicariavernaHuds.NN!
RanunculusacrisL.NN!
RanunculusflammulaL.NN!
RanunculushederaceusL.NN!
RanunculusrepensL.NN!
ROSACEAE
Alchemillamollis (Buser) Rothm.ANP-E
Comarumpalustre L.NN!
Filipendulaulmaria(L.) Maxim.NN!
PotentillaanserinaL.NN!
Potentillaerecta(L.) Raeusch.NN!
RosacaninaL.NC-F/SL
RosarugosaThunb.ANP-E
RubusspectabilisPurshANP-E
Sorbusaria(L.) CrantzNP-E
RUBIACEAE
GaliumaparineL.NN!
GaliumpalustreL.NN!
Galiumsaxatile L.NN!
SALICACEAE
Salixcinerea subsp. oleifoliaMacreightNN!
Salixherbacea L.NN!
SalixrepensL.NN!
Salixx smithianaWilld.ANP-E
SAPINDACEAE
AcerpseudoplatanusL.ANP-E
SOLANACEAE
SolanumtuberosumL.ANP-E
URTICACEAE
UrticadioicaL.N N!
VIOLACEAE
ViolacaninaL.N N!
ViolapalustrisL.NN!
ViolarivinianaRchb.NN!
ViolatricolorL.NN!NT

Abbreviations

Symbol Native status
Nnative
ARarchaeophytes (non-native introduced in 'ancient' times)
ANneophyte (non-native introduced in recent history)
Symbol Fair Isle statusDescription
N! Native Extant Species still found on the island
N* Native Extinct Species not seen at present
N-RC Native Recent Colonist Species currently increasing in abundance or colonising new sites
NC-E Natural Colonist Established Recent colonists now widespread or abundant
NC-F/SLNatural Colonist Failed/Short-lived Those species of intermittent presence
C-E Casual EstablishedAccidental introductions that are long established
C-TECasual Temporarily EstablishedAccidental introductions in small and often short-lived populations
C* Casual ExtinctAccidental introductions not seen at present
C-F/SLCasual Failed Short-lived Accidental infrequent species that never established
P-EPlanted Established Extant species planted outside formal garden situations
P-TEPlanted Temporarily Established Species planted outside garden situations
P-F/SLPlanted Failed/Short Lived Failed species planted outside formal garden situations
EEscapes Garden escapees
UUnverified Species described as present by previous authors but not found subsequently
D DoubtfulPreviously described species now considered unlikely by expert opinion
Symbol Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain
ENendangered
NRnationally rare
NSnationally scarce
NTnear threatened
VUvulnerable

Reference

Quinteros Peñafiel, C.V., Riddiford, N.J. & Twyford, A.D. 2017. A floristic survey of Fair Isle. New Journal of Botany 7(2-3): 101-111.